On fractional linear multi-step methods for fractional order multi-delay nonlinear pantograph equation

Document Type : Research Paper


Mathematics Department, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.


This paper presents the development of a series of fractional multi-step linear finite difference methods (FLMMs) designed to address fractional multi-delay pantograph differential equations of order $0 < \alpha \leq 1$. These $p$ FLMMs are constructed using fractional backward differentiation formulas of first and second orders, thereby facilitating the numerical solution of fractional differential equations. Notably, we employ accurate approximations for the delayed components of the equation, guaranteeing the retention of stability and convergence characteristics in the proposed $p$-FLMMs. To substantiate our theoretical findings, we offer numerical examples that corroborate the efficacy and reliability of our approach.


Main Subjects

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